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 Deepsky delights.Not Available λ Bootis stars with composite spectraWe examine the large sample of λ Boo candidates collected inTable 1 of Gerbaldi et al. (\cite{Gerbaldi2003}) to see how many of themshow composite spectra. Of the 132 λ Boo candidates we identify22 which definitely show composite spectra and 15 more for which thereare good reasons to suspect a composite spectrum. The percentage ofλ Boo candidates with composite spectra is therefore >17% andpossibly considerably higher. For such stars the λ Booclassification should be reconsidered taking into account the fact thattheir spectra are composite. We argue that some of the underabundancesreported in the literature may simply be the result of the failure toconsider the composite nature of the spectra. This leads to thelegitimate suspicion that some, if not all, the λ Boo candidatesare not chemically peculiar at all. A thorough analysis of even a singleone of the λ Boo candidates with composite spectra, in which thecomposite nature of the spectrum is duly considered, which woulddemonstrate that the chemical peculiarities persist, would clear thedoubt we presently have that the stars with composite spectra may not beλ Boo stars at all.Based on observations collected at ESO (Echelec spectrograph) and at TBL(Telescope Bernard Lyot) of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France). The heterogeneous class of lambda Bootis starsWe demonstrate that it is arduous to define the lambda Boo stars as aclass of objects exhibiting uniform abundance peculiarities which wouldbe generated by a mechanism altering the structure of their atmosphericlayers. We collected the stars classified as lambda Boo up to now anddiscuss their properties, in particular the important percentage ofconfirmed binaries producing composite spectra (including our adaptiveoptics observations) and of misclassified objects. The unexplained RVvariables (and thus suspected binaries), the known SB for which we lackinformation on the companion, the stars with an UV flux inconsistentwith their classification, and the fast rotating stars for which noaccurate abundance analysis can be performed, are also reviewed.Partly based on observations collected at the CFH Telescope (Hawaii) andat TBL of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France).Table \ref{tab5} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The status of Galactic field λ Bootis stars in the post-Hipparcos eraThe λ Bootis stars are Population I, late B- to early F-typestars, with moderate to extreme (up to a factor 100) surfaceunderabundances of most Fe-peak elements and solar abundances of lighterelements (C, N, O and S). To put constraints on the various existingtheories that try to explain these peculiar stars, we investigate theobservational properties of λ Bootis stars compared with areference sample of normal stars. Using various photometric systems andHipparcos data, we analyse the validity of standard photometriccalibrations, elemental abundances, and Galactic space motions. Therecrystallizes a clear picture of a homogeneous group of Population Iobjects found at all stages of their main-sequence evolution, with apeak at about 1 Gyr. No correlation of astrophysical parameters such asthe projected rotational velocities or elemental abundances with age isfound, suggesting that the a priori unknown mechanism, which createsλ Bootis stars, works continuously for late B- to early F-typestars in all stages of main-sequence evolution. Surprisingly, the sodiumabundances seem to indicate an interaction between the stars and theirlocal environment. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Rotational velocities of A-type stars. I. Measurement of v sin i in the southern hemisphereWithin the scope of a Key Programme determining fundamental parametersof stars observed by HIPPARCOS, spectra of 525 B8 to F2-type starsbrighter than V=8 have been collected at ESO. Fourier transforms ofseveral line profiles in the range 4200-4500 Å are used to derivev sin i from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis ofthe sample indicates that measurement error is a function of v sin i andthis relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 6%on average. The results obtained are compared with data from theliterature. There is a systematic shift from standard values from\citet{Slk_75}, which are 10 to 12% lower than our findings. Comparisonswith other independent v sin i values tend to prove that those fromSlettebak et al. are underestimated. This effect is attributed to thepresence of binaries in the standard sample of Slettebak et al., and tothe model atmosphere they used. Based on observations made at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, in the frameworkof the Key Programme 5-004-43K. Table 4 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/105 Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). R CMa - a New Pulsating Eclipsing Binary StarNot Available Near-Infrared Photometric Studies of R Canis MajorisWe present here the first light curves of the peculiar Algol binarysystem R Canis Majoris obtained in the near-infrared photometric bands Jand K. The light curves are fitted for a semidetached model with theWilson-Devinney light-curve synthesis program. The parameters of thesystem are derived. Published light curves in the optical photometricbands (U, U_n, B, B_n, V, V_n, Hβ_w, and Hβ_n of Guinan, Vlight curve of Sato, and Hα_w and Hα_n light curves ofEdalati, Khalesse, & Riazi) are reanalyzed and the results arecompared. The temperature of the secondary component T_2 derived fromthe light-curve analysis shows an increase toward the near-IRwavelengths, achieving maximum in the K band. The secondary minima aredeeper by 0.03 and 0.07 mag and the primary minima are shallower by 0.02and 0.03 mag in the J and K bands, respectively, than what is expectedin these bands from the secondary temperature and primary radius derivedfrom the V band. In the case of the Hα and Hβ light curves,the narrowband light curves yielded higher T_2 than the broadband lightcurves. The values of T_2 derived from these bands are found to behigher than those derived from the light curves observed in theneighboring wavelengths. We consider the possibility of the differencein the strength of photospheric absorption of Hα and Hβ linesin the primary and the secondary as a reason for the high values of T_2derived from these light curves. Five epochs of primary minima and fourepochs of secondary minima are obtained in the present study. Theincreased depth of the secondary minima in the near-IR bands comparedwith the optical bands enabled us to determine the moments of secondaryminima with nearly the same accuracy as those of primary minima. All thesecondary minima appear at phase 0.5, and the durations are equal forthe primary and the secondary eclipses. The epochs of primary minimafollow the nearly sinusoidal O-C curve that has been observed for thisstar in previous studies. The values of O-C for the secondary minimawere in the same range as those of the primary minima observed by us. Weconclude that the system is in a circular orbit. Our observed epochs ofprimary minima support the presence of a third component in the system,as proposed by Radhakrishnan, Sarma, & Abhyankar. The effect of thepresence of a third, noneclipsing, light source would be to suppress theobserved depths of both the eclipses, whereas in this system we findthat the secondary eclipse depth is being enhanced and the primaryeclipse depth is being suppressed compared with expectations. So we havenot fitted for a third light in our light-curve analysis, leaving thenature of the third body, if present, undetermined from our presentlight-curve analysis. The J-band light curve of R CMa fitted well with abolometric albedo of the secondary star A_2=0.5, as expected for a starwith a convective atmosphere. But the K-band light curve showed a valueof A_2=0.84. A_2 is also found to be higher in the broadband lightcurves than in the narrowband light curves at all the opticalwavelengths (except in the U and U_n bands, in which the secondaryminima are very shallow). This result can provide clues about the causeof the high A_2 observed in many Algol-type binary light curves. A_2 isalso found to vary for light curves at the same wavelengths but taken atdifferent epochs, which helps us to conclude that the high value of A_2seen in many light curves need not be of photospheric origin. Radial velocities of HIPPARCOS southern B8-F2 type starsRadial velocities have been determined for a sample of B8-F2 type starsobserved by the Hipparcos satellite. Observations were obtained withinthe framework of an ESO key-program. Radial velocities have beenmeasured using a cross-correlation method, the templates being a grid ofsynthetic spectra. The obtained precision depends on effectivetemperature and projected rotational velocity of the star as well as ona possible asymmetry of the correlation peak generally due to secondarycomponents. New spectroscopic binaries have been detected from theseasymmetries and the variability of the measured radial velocity.Simulations of binary and triple systems have been performed. Forbinaries our results have been compared with Hipparcos binary data.Adding the variable radial velocities, the minimum binary fraction hasbeen found 60% for physical systems. Radial velocities have beendetermined for 581 B8-F2 stars, 159 being new. Taking into accountpublished radial velocities, 39% south A-type stars with V magnitudelower than 7.5 have a radial velocity. Based on observations obtained atthe European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile) and on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.}\fnmsep \thanks{Tables 7, 8and 9 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright starsPhotoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Determination of the temperatures of selected ISO flux calibration stars using the Infrared Flux MethodEffective temperatures for 420 stars with spectral types between A0 andK3, and luminosity classes between II and V, selected for a fluxcalibration of the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, have been determinedusing the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM). The determinations are based onnarrow and wide band photometric data obtained for this purpose, andtake into account previously published narrow-band measures oftemperature. Regression coefficients are given for relations between thedetermined temperatures and the photometric parameters (B2-V1), (b-y)and (B-V), corrected for interstellar extinction through use ofHipparcos parallaxes. A correction for the effect of metallicity on thedetermination of integrated flux is proposed. The importance of aknowledge of metallicity in the representation of derived temperaturesfor Class V, IV and III stars by empirical functions is discussed andformulae given. An estimate is given for the probable error of eachtemperature determination. Based on data from the ESA HipparcosAstrometry Satellite. The absolute magnitude of the early type MK standards from HIPPARCOS parallaxesWe analyse the standards of the MK system with the help of Hipparcosparallaxes, using only stars for which the error of the absolutemagnitude is <= 0.3 mag. We find that the main sequence is a wideband and that, although in general giants and dwarfs have differentabsolute magnitudes, the separation between luminosity classes V and IIIis not clear. Furthermore, there are a number of exceptions to thestrict relation between luminosity class and absolute magnitude. Weanalyse similarly the system of standards defined by Garrison & Gray(1994) separating low and high rotational velocity standards. We findsimilar effects as in the original MK system. We propose a revision ofthe MK standards, to eliminate the most deviant cases. Based on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) Accurate Two-dimensional Classification of Stellar Spectra with Artificial Neural NetworksWe present a solution to the long-standing problem of automaticallyclassifying stellar spectra of all temperature and luminosity classeswith the accuracy shown by expert human classifiers. We use the 15Angstroms resolution near-infrared spectral classification systemdescribed by Torres-Dodgen & Weaver in 1993. Using the spectrum withno manual intervention except wavelength registration, artificial neuralnetworks (ANNs) can classify these spectra with Morgan-Keenan types withan accuracy comparable to that obtained by human experts using 2Angstroms resolution blue spectra, which is about 0.5 types (subclasses)in temperature and about 0.25 classes in luminosity. Accuratetemperature classification requires a hierarchy of ANNs, whileluminosity classification is most successful with a single ANN. Wepropose an architecture for a fully automatic classification system. A consolidated catalogue of lambda Bootis starslambda Bootis stars challenge our understanding of diffusion andaccretion processes related to stars and their circumstellarenvironment, and they are interesting components of the classicalinstability strip. Attempts to derive group properties with statisticalmethods are severely limited by the small number of unambiguouslyidentified lambda Bootis stars. In general, the subject appears to beobscured by incorrect memberships and it is therefore essential toprovide a sufficiently large catalogue of definitive group membersbefore modeling the lambda Bootis phenomenon. This paper describes thefirst steps towards this goal, based on our current knowledge of wellinvestigated members, leading to a concise definition of lambda Bootisstars: {Pop I hydrogen burning metal poor (except of C,N,O and S) A-typestars.} The definition does not depend on phenomenological features,like flux depressions, colour excesses, v sin i values, etc. Based on anew homogeneous catalogue with 45 lambda Bootis stars, we discussclassification criteria which can be used for a spectroscopic andphotometric all-sky survey for lambda Bootis stars in the field and inclusters of different ages. Based on observations obtained atESO-La,Silla, CTIO, Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padua-Asiago, Univ. Toronto Southern Observatory,Observatorio do Pico dos Dias-LNA/CNPq/MCT (Brazil). Table 1 is alsoavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Neural Network Classification of the Near-Infrared Spectra of A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...446..300W&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. The position corrections of 1400 stars observed with PA II in San Juan.Not Available Accretion from Circumstellar Discs and the Lambda-Bootis PhenomenonAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994MNRAS.269..209K&db_key=AST Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 ExtensionNot Available R Canis Majoris - Times of Eclipse MinimaNot Available Catalogue of Lambda Bootis CandidatesNot Available An atlas of stellar spectra between 2.00 and 2.45 micronsSpectra between 2.00 and 2.45 microns, with a resolution of about 0.02micron are presented for a sample of 73 stars. These stars include asupergiant, giants, dwarfs and subdwarfs, and have a range in chemicalabundance from about -2 to +0.5 dex. Further DA Photometry of I-Bootis StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989A&AS...81..335M&db_key=AST The early A type stars - Refined MK classification, confrontation with Stroemgren photometry, and the effects of rotationThe MK classification system for the early A-type stars is refined, anda parallel system of standards for the broad-lined stars is introduced.With this improved system, stars may be classified with significantlygreater precision than before. It is shown that spectral types in thissystem are not systematically affected by rotational line broadening. Atotal of 372 early A-type stars are classified, and a confrontation ofthese spectral types with Stroemgren photometry reveals a number ofsystematic photometric effects of rotation. In particular, high v sin istars are systematically redder than low v sin i stars of the samespectral type, and the beta index is weakened by rotation. It isconcluded that precise spectral classification in conjunction withStroemgren and H-beta photometry can potentially provide a valuablecheck and input to the theory of the atmospheres of rotating stars. Photometric variability of some CP starsThe photometric data relative to twenty-three southern CP stars havebeen re-analyzed. New or improved parameters of the lightcurves arepresented for eleven of them. Search for Lambda Bootis type candidatesAn extensive search for Lambda Bootis candidates has been madethroughout the whole Geneva photometric catalogue and 17 stars have beenfound, matching the photometric conditions to be Lambda Bootis stars.Thirteen stars proposed by Abt (1984) as Lambda Bootis candidates, onthe basis of the weakness of the 4481 Mg II line, also match theseconditions.
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