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|Characterizing the Chemistry of the Milky Way Stellar Halo: Detailed Chemical Analysis of a Metal-poor Stellar Stream|
We present the results of a detailed abundance analysis of one of theconfirmed building blocks of the Milky Way stellar halo, a kinematicallycoherent metal-poor stellar stream. We have obtained high-resolution andhigh signal-to-noise spectra of 12 probable stream members using theMagellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan-ClayTelescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the 2dCoude spectrograph onthe Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We have derived abundancesor upper limits for 51 species of 46 elements in each of these stars.The stream members show a range of metallicity (-3.4 < [Fe/H]<-1.5) but are otherwise chemically homogeneous, with the samestar-to-star dispersion in [X/Fe] as the rest of the halo. This impliesthat, in principle, a significant fraction of the Milky Way stellar halocould have formed from accreted systems like the stream. The streamstars show minimal evolution in the ? or Fe-group elements overthe range of metallicity. This stream is enriched with material producedby the main and weak components of the rapid neutron-capture process andshows no evidence for enrichment by the slow neutron-capture process.This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopeslocated at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of theUniversity of Texas at Austin.
|An Overview of the Rotational Behavior of Metal-poor Stars|
This paper describes the behavior of the rotational velocity inmetal-poor stars ([Fe/H] <= -0.5 dex) in different evolutionarystages, based on vsin i values from the literature. Our sample iscomprised of stars in the field and some Galactic globular clusters,including stars on the main sequence, the red giant branch (RGB), andthe horizontal branch (HB). The metal-poor stars are, mainly, slowrotators, and their vsin i distribution along the HR diagram is quitehomogeneous. Nevertheless, a few moderate to high values of vsin i arefound in stars located on the main sequence and the HB. We show that theoverall distribution of vsin i values is basically independent ofmetallicity for the stars in our sample. In particular, thefast-rotating main sequence stars in our sample present rotation ratessimilar to their metal-rich counterparts, suggesting that some of themmay actually be fairly young, in spite of their low metallicity, or elsethat at least some of them would be better classified as blue stragglerstars. We do not find significant evidence of evolution in vsin i valuesas a function of position on the RGB; in particular, we do not confirmprevious suggestions that stars close to the RGB tip rotate faster thantheir less-evolved counterparts. While the presence of fast rotatorsamong moderately cool blue HB stars has been suggested to be due toangular momentum transport from a stellar core that has retainedsignificant angular momentum during its prior evolution, we find thatany such transport mechanisms most likely operate very fast as the stararrives on the zero-age HB (ZAHB), since we do not find a link betweenevolution off the ZAHB and vsin i values. We present an extensivetabulation of all quantities discussed in this paper, including rotationvelocities, temperatures, gravities, and metallicities [Fe/H], as wellas broadband magnitudes and colors.
|Asymmetries in the Spectral Lines of Evolved Halo Stars|
We do an initial reconnaissance of asymmetries of spectral lines inmetal-poor field stars using high-resolution observations of four redhorizontal-branch and 11 red giant branch stars taken with the coudespectrograph at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find that (1) theshapes of the line bisectors for metal-poor stars hotter than 4100 Kmimic the well-known C shape of bisectors for solar-metallicity stars onthe cool side of the granulation boundary while (2) metal-poor starscooler than 4100 K, or higher up the red giant branch than MV = –1.5, show bisectors with a reversed-C shape,similar to those for solar-metallicity stars on the hot side of thegranulation boundary and similar to the reversed-C shape found in aprevious study for the M-type supergiant Betelgeuse. The well-documentedradial-velocity jitter of high-luminosity stars and the line bisectorcharacteristics vary in concert up the red giant branch; both phenomenaare probably signatures of large convection cells.Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope(CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, theInstitut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de laRecherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii.
|Rotation and Macroturbulence in Metal-Poor Field Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars|
We report the results for rotational velocities, Vrot sin i,and macroturbulence dispersions, ζRT, for 12 metal-poorfield red giant branch (RGB) stars and 7 metal-poor field red horizontalbranch (RHB) stars. The results are based on Fourier transform analysesof absorption line profiles from high-resolution (R ≈ 120,000),high-S/N (≈215 per pixel; ≈345 per resolution element) spectraobtained with the Gecko spectrograph at the Canada-France-HawaiiTelescope (CFHT). The stars were selected from the authors' previousstudies of 20 RHB and 116 RGB stars, based primarily onlarger-than-average line-broadening values. We find thatζRT values for the metal-poor RGB stars are very similarto those for metal-rich disk giants studied earlier by Gray and hiscollaborators. Six of the RGB stars have small rotational values, lessthan 2.0 km s-1, while five show significantrotation/enhanced line broadening, over 3 km s-1. We confirmthe rapid rotation rate for RHB star HD 195636, found earlier byPreston. This star's rotation is comparable to that of the fastest knownrotating blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars, when allowance is made fordifferences in radii and moments of inertia. The other six RHB starshave somewhat lower rotation but show a trend to higher values at highertemperatures (lower radii). Comparing our results with those for BHBstars from Kinman et al., we find that the fraction of rapidly rotatingRHB stars is somewhat lower than is found among BHB stars. The number ofrapidly rotating RHB stars is also smaller than we would have expectedfrom the observed rotation of the RGB stars. We devise two empiricalmethods to translate our earlier line-broadening results intoVrot sin i for all the RGB and RHB stars they studied.Binning the RGB stars by luminosity, we find that most metal-poor fieldRGB stars show no detectable sign, on average, of rotation, which is notsurprising given the stars' large radii. However, the most luminousstars, with MV <= -1.5, do show net rotation, with meanvalues of 2-4 km s-1, depending on the algorithm employed,and also show signs of radial velocity jitter and mass loss. This"rotation" may in fact prove to be due to other line-broadening effects,such as shock waves or pulsation.Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope(CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, theInstitut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de laRecherche Scientifique de France, and the University of Hawaii.
|Line Broadening in Field Metal-Poor Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars|
We report 349 radial velocities for 45 metal-poor field red giant branch(RGB) and red horizontal branch (RHB) stars, with time coverage rangingfrom 1 to 21 years. We have identified one new spectroscopic binary, HD4306, and one possible such system, HD 184711. We also provide 57 radialvelocities for 11 of the 91 stars reported in our previous work. All butone of the 11 stars had been found to have variable radial velocities.New velocities for the long-period spectroscopic binaries BD-1 2582 andHD 108317 have extended the time coverage to 21.7 and 12.5 years,respectively, but in neither case have we yet completed a full orbitalperiod. As was found in the previous study, radial velocity "jitter" ispresent in many of the most luminous stars. Excluding stars showingspectroscopic binary orbital motion, all 7 of the red giants withestimated MV values more luminous than -2.0 display jitter,as well as 3 of the 14 stars with -2.0 < MV <= -1.4. Wehave also measured the line broadening in all the new spectra, usingsynthetic spectra as templates. Comparison with results fromhigh-resolution and higher signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra employed byother workers shows good agreement down to line-broadening levels of 3km s-1, well below our instrumental resolution of 8.5 kms-1. As the previous work demonstrated, the majority of themost luminous red giants show significant line broadening, as do many ofthe red horizontal branch stars, and we briefly discuss possible causes.The line broadening appears related to velocity jitter, in that bothappear primarily among the highest luminosity red giants.
|Halo Star Streams in the Solar Neighborhood|
We have assembled a sample of halo stars in the solar neighborhood tolook for halo substructure in velocity and angular momentum space. Oursample (231 stars) includes red giants, RR Lyrae variable stars, and redhorizontal branch stars within 2.5 kpc of the Sun with [Fe/H] less than-1.0. It was chosen to include stars with accurate distances, spacevelocities, and metallicities, as well as well-quantified errors. Withour data set, we confirm the existence of the streams found by Helmi andcoworkers, which we refer to as the H99 streams. These streams have adouble-peaked velocity distribution in the z-direction (out of theGalactic plane). We use the results of modeling of the H99 streams byHelmi and collaborators to test how one might use vz velocityinformation and radial velocity information to detect kinematicsubstructure in the halo. We find that detecting the H99 streams withradial velocities alone would require a large sample (e.g.,approximately 150 stars within 2 kpc of the Sun and within 20° ofthe Galactic poles). In addition, we use the velocity distribution ofthe H99 streams to estimate their age. From our model of the progenitorof the H99 streams, we determine that it was accreted between 6 and 9Gyr ago. The H99 streams have [α/Fe] abundances similar to otherhalo stars in the solar neighborhood, suggesting that the gas thatformed these stars were enriched mostly by Type II supernovae. We havealso discovered in angular momentum space two other possiblesubstructures, which we refer to as the retrograde and progradeoutliers. The retrograde outliers are likely to be halo substructure,but the prograde outliers are most likely part of the smooth halo. Theretrograde outliers have significant structure in the vφdirection and show a range of [α/Fe], with two having low[α/Fe] for their [Fe/H]. The fraction of substructure stars in oursample is between 5% and 7%. The methods presented in this paper can beused to exploit the kinematic information present in future largedatabases like RAVE, SDSS-II/SEGUE, and Gaia.
|Structure in the motions of the fastest halo stars|
We analyzed the catalog published by Beers et al. (2000, ApJ, 119, 2866)of 2106 non-kinematically selected metal poor stars in the solarneighborhood, with the goal of quantifying the amount of substructure inthe motions of the fastest halo stars. We computed the two-pointvelocity correlation function for a subsample of halo stars within 1-2kpc of the Sun, and found statistical evidence of substructure with asimilar amplitude to that predicted by high resolution CDM simulations.The signal is due to a small kinematic group whose dynamical propertiesare compared to the stellar "stream" previously discovered by Helmi etal. (1999). If real, this high velocity moving group would providefurther support for the idea that substructures remain as fossils fromthe formation of the Galaxy as expected in the CDM scenario.
|Kinematics of Metal-poor Stars in the Galaxy. II. Proper Motions for a Large Nonkinematically Selected Sample|
We present a revised catalog of 2106 Galactic stars, selected withoutkinematic bias and with available radial velocities, distance estimates,and metal abundances in the range -4.0<=[Fe/H]<=0.0. This updateof the 1995 Beers & Sommer-Larsen catalog includes newly derivedhomogeneous photometric distance estimates, revised radial velocitiesfor a number of stars with recently obtained high-resolution spectra,and refined metallicities for stars originally identified in the HKobjective-prism survey (which account for nearly half of the catalog)based on a recent recalibration. A subset of 1258 stars in this cataloghave available proper motions based on measurements obtained with theHipparcos astrometry satellite or taken from the updated AstrographicCatalogue (second epoch positions from either the Hubble Space TelescopeGuide Star Catalog or the Tycho Catalogue), the Yale/San Juan SouthernProper Motion Catalog 2.0, and the Lick Northern Proper Motion Catalog.Our present catalog includes 388 RR Lyrae variables (182 of which arenewly added), 38 variables of other types, and 1680 nonvariables, withdistances in the range 0.1 to 40 kpc.
|Kinematics of Metal-poor Stars in the Galaxy. III. Formation of the Stellar Halo and Thick Disk as Revealed from a Large Sample of Nonkinematically Selected Stars|
We present a detailed analysis of the space motions of 1203solar-neighborhood stars with metal abundances [Fe/H]<=-0.6, on thebasis of a catalog, of metal-poor stars selected without kinematic biasrecently revised and supplemented by Beers et al. This sample, havingavailable proper motions, radial velocities, and distance estimates forstars with a wide range of metal abundances, is by far the largest suchcatalog to be assembled to date. We show that the stars in our samplewith [Fe/H]<=-2.2, which likely represent a ``pure'' halo component,are characterized by a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid(σU,σV,σW)=(141+/-11,106+/-9, 94+/-8) km s-1 and small prograde rotation=30 to 50 km s-1, consistent withprevious analysis of this sample by Beers and Sommer-Larsen based onradial velocity information alone. In contrast to the previous analysis,we find a decrease in with increasingdistance from the Galactic plane for stars that are likely to be membersof the halo population(Δ/Δ|Z|=-52+/-6 km s-1kpc-1), which may represent the signature of a dissipativelyformed flattened inner halo. Unlike essentially all previouskinematically selected catalogs, the metal-poor stars in our sampleexhibit a diverse distribution of orbital eccentricities, e, with noapparent correlation between [Fe/H] and e. This demonstrates, clearlyand convincingly, that the evidence offered in 1962 by Eggen,Lynden-Bell, & Sandage for a rapid collapse of the Galaxy, anapparent correlation between the orbital eccentricity of halo stars withmetallicity, is basically the result of their proper-motion selectionbias. However, even in our nonkinematically selected sample, we haveidentified a small concentration of high-e stars at [Fe/H]~-1.7, whichmay originate, in part, from infalling gas during the early formation ofthe Galaxy. We find no evidence for an additional thick disk componentfor stellar abundances [Fe/H]<=-2.2. The kinematics of theintermediate-abundance stars close to the Galactic plane are, in part,affected by the presence of a rapidly rotating thick disk component with ~=200 km s-1 (with a verticalvelocity gradient on the order ofΔ/Δ|Z|=-30+/-3 km s-1kpc-1) and velocity ellipsoid (σU,σV, σW)=(46+/-4, 50+/-4, 35+/-3) kms-1. The fraction of low-metallicity stars in the solarneighborhood that are members of the thick disk population is estimatedas ~10% for -2.2<[Fe/H]<=-1.7 and ~30% for -1.7<[Fe/H]<=-1.We obtain an estimate of the radial scale length of the metal-weak thickdisk of 4.5+/-0.6 kpc. We also analyze the global kinematics of thestars constituting the halo component of the Galaxy. The outer part ofthe halo, which we take to be represented by local stars on orbitsreaching more than 5 kpc from the Galactic plane, exhibits no systematicrotation. In particular, we show that previous suggestions of thepresence of a ``counter-rotating high halo'' are not supported by ouranalysis. The density distribution of the outer halo is nearly sphericaland exhibits a power-law profile that is accurately described asρ~R-3.55+/-0.13. The inner part of the halo ischaracterized by a prograde rotation and a highly flattened densitydistribution. We find no distinct boundary between the inner and outerhalo. We confirm the clumping in angular-momentum phase space of a smallnumber of local metal-poor stars noted in 1999 by Helmi et al. We alsoidentify an additional elongated feature in angular-momentum phase spaceextending from the clump to regions with high azimuthal rotation. Thenumber of members in the detected clump is not significantly increasedfrom that reported by Helmi et al., even though the total number of thesample stars we consider is almost triple that of the previousinvestigation. We conclude that the fraction of halo stars that may havearisen from the precursor object of this clump may be smaller than 10%of the present Galactic halo, as previously suggested. The implicationsof our results for the formation of the Galaxy are discussed, inparticular in the context of the currently favored cold dark mattertheory of hierarchical galaxy formation.
|Ca II H and K Photometry on the UVBY System. III. The Metallicity Calibration for the Red Giants|
New photometry on the uvby Ca system is presented for over 300 stars.When combined with previous data, the sample is used to calibrate themetallicity dependence of the hk index for cooler, evolved stars. Themetallicity scale is based upon the standardized merger of spectroscopicabundances from 38 studies since 1983, providing an overlap of 122evolved stars with the photometric catalog. The hk index producesreliable abundances for stars in the [Fe/H] range from -0.8 to -3.4,losing sensitivity among cooler stars due to saturation effects athigher [Fe/H], as expected.
|Early evolution of the Galactic halo revealed from Hipparcos observations of metal-poor stars|
The kinematics of 122 red giant and 124 RR Lyrae stars in the solarneighborhood are studied using accurate measurements of their propermotions obtained by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, combined withtheir published photometric distances, metal abundances, and radialvelocities. A majority of these sample stars have metal abundances of(Fe/H) = -1 or less and thus represent the old stellar populations inthe Galaxy. The halo component, with (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less, ischaracterized by a lack of systemic rotation and a radially elongatedvelocity ellipsoid. About 16 percent of such metal-poor stars have loworbital eccentricities, and we see no evidence of a correlation between(Fe/H) and e. Based on the model for the e-distribution of orbits, weshow that this fraction of low-e stars for (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less isexplained by the halo component alone, without introducing the extradisk component claimed by recent workers. This is also supported by theabsence of a significant change in the e-distribution with height fromthe Galactic plane. In the intermediate-metallicity range, we find thatstars with disklike kinematics have only modest effects on thedistributions of rotational velocities and e for the sample at absolutevalue of z less than 1 kpc. This disk component appears to constituteonly 10 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.6 and -1 and 20 percent for (Fe/H)between -1.4 and -1.
|Distribution and Studies of the Infrared Stellar Population in the Galaxy. VI. The Halo|
We present infrared J, H and K observations of 69 local galactic halostars. We produce the two colour (JHK) and the colour magnitude (Kversus (J-K)) diagrams for this stellar sample and compare them with thesame diagrams for the stellar populations in the globular clusters M3,M13, M92 and 47 Tucanae and in the old open cluster M67; we also comparethese diagrams with those for the stellar population in the galacticbulge.
|Ca II H and K Filter Photometry on the UVBY System. II. The Catalog of Observations|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....109.2828T&db_key=AST
|Kinematics of metal-poor stars in the galaxy|
We discuss the kinematic properties of a sample of 1936 Galactic stars,selected without kinematic bias, and with abundances (Fe/H) is less thanor equal to -0.6. The stars selected for this study all have measuredradial velocities, and the majority have abundances determined fromspectroscopic or narrow-/intermediate-band photometric techniques. Incontrast to previous examinations of the kinematics of the metal-poorstars in the Galaxy, our sample contains large numbers of stars that arelocated at distances in excess of 1 kpc from the Galactic plane. Thus, amuch clearer picture of the nature of the metal-deficient populations inthe Galaxy can now be drawn.
|Reddening estimation for halo red giants using UVBY photometry|
Updated uvby observations for a larger sample of metal-deficient redgiants are presented and combined with a select sample of data from theliterature transformed to a common system. Using the reddening maps ofBurstein & Heiles (1982), new absolute magnitudes, distances,metallicities, and reddenings are derived for each star. Themetallicities are determined with a revised calibration of them1, (b-y) diagram based upon comparison to a complilation ofrecent spectrsoscopic abundances transformed to a common system. Thephotometric abundances agree very well with the spectroscopic; thedispersion among the residuals for 58 giants is +/- 0.16 dex. Thedereddened indices are used to show that for red giants with (Fe/H) lessthan -1.5, there is a well-defined relation in the c0,(b-y)0 diagram which exhibits only a weak dependence uponmetallicity. Use of the standard relations allows one to obtainreddening estimates for normal halo field giants and globular clustersin the appropriate metallicity range.
|Estimation of stellar metal abundance. I - Calibration of the CA II K index|
A method for estimating the stellar metal abundances is proposed whichcompares measures of the equivalent width of a single feature inmoderate resolution (1 A) optical spectra of stars, the Ca II K line at3933 A, with models of the predicted line strength as a function of thebroadband B-V color and Fe/H. The approach is capable of providingestimates of stellar metallicity over the range -4.5 to -1.0 with ascatter of about 0.15 dex for dwarfs and giants in the color range0.33-0.85. For cooler stars, with B-V in the range 0.85-1.1, the scattermay be as large as 0.19 dex. The calibration of the Ca II K index withFe/H is discussed, and average radial velocities and abundances arepresented for several galactic globular clusters.
|Armchair cartography - A map of the Galactic halo based on observations of local, metal-poor stars|
The velocity distribution of metal-poor halo stars in the solarneighborhood is studied to extract data on the global spatial andkinematic properties of the Galactic stellar halo. A global model of thesolar neighborhood stars is constructed from observed positions andthree-dimensional velocity of local, metal-poor halo stars in terms of adiscrete sum of orbits. The characteristics of the reconstructed haloare examined and used to study the evolution of the halo subsystems.
|Population studies. II - Kinematics as a function of abundance and galactocentric position for (Fe/H) of -0.6 or less|
A catalog is presented of some 1200 Galactic objects which have radialvelocities and (Fe/H) abundances of -0.6 or less. These data areanalyzed to yield information on the kinematic properties of the olderpopulations of the Galaxy and on the interdependence between kinematicsand abundance. It is found that the kinematics of the availablekinematically selected stars differ from those of the nonkinematicallyselected objects. No evidence is found for any significant difference inthe kinematic properties of the various halo subgroups, nor for anydependence of kinematics on abundance. While the rotation of the halo issmall at about 37 km/s for (Fe/H) of -1.2 or less, it rises quickly forhigher abundances to a value of about 160 km/s at (Fe/H) = 0.6. Objectsin the abundance range -0.9 to -0.6 appear to belong predominantly to apopulation possessing the kinematic characteristics of a thick disk. Theimplications of these findings for the suggestion that globular clustersbelong to the same population as the noncluster objects, for the originof the thick disk, and for the mass of the Galaxy are discussed.
|The kinematics of halo red giants|
The present 337 radial velocities were obtained with typical accuraciesof 0.7 cm km/sec for 85 metal-poor field red giants, selected from thekinematically unbiased samples of Bond (1980) and Bidelman and MacConnel(1973). The multiply-observed stars suggest the field halo binaryfraction exceeds 10 percent. Using these velocities and those publishedby others, a sample of 174 red giants with Fe/H of not more than -1.5 isobtained. Their mean motion with respect to the local standard of restis -206 + or - 23 km/sec, and the velocity dispersions are sigma (R) of154 + or - 18 km/sec, sigma(theta) of 102 + or - 27 km/sec, andsigma(phi) of 107 + or - 15 km/sec. Using photometrically derivedabsolute magnitudes and published proper motions, orbital eccentricitiesare computed for 72 stars not already considered in a similar study ofsouthern stars by Norris et al. (1985). A few stars with e of less than0.4 are found.
|Population studies. I - The Bidelman-MacConnell 'weak-metal' stars|
BRVI and DDO photometry are presented for 309 Bidelman-MacConnell'weak-metal' stars. Radial velocities are calculated for most of thestars having Fe/H abundances of no more than -0.8. The photometricobservations were carried out using the 0.6-meter and 1.0-metertelescopes of the Siding Spring Observatory. Photometric taxonomy wasused to classify the stars as dwarfs, giants, red-horizontal branchstars, and ultraviolet-bright stars, respectively. It is found that 35percent of the stars are giants; 50 percent are dwarfs; and 5 percentbelong to the red-horizontal branch group. The role of selection effectsin investigations of the formation of the Galaxy is discussed on thebasis of the photometric observations and the observational constraintsproposed by Eggen et al. (1962).
|VBLUW photometry of some halo field giants|
The Walraven VBLUW Photometry for a sample of 43 metal-deficient halogiants and 35 stars with known values for effective temperature (T eff),log g, and FE/H are presented. A calibration of the photometric indicesis determined in terms of the ratios 5040 K/T eff and FE/H. It is shownthat the photometric system has a good metallicity separation, yieldinga metallicity of -2.9 dex for CoD-38 deg 245 which contrasts with theextremely low value (-4.6 dex) obtained by Bessel and Norris (1981). Theimportance of this star as a standard for the calibration of photometricmetallicities is discussed. It is found that spectroscopic abundancemeasurements for stars with Fe/H of less than 2.7 are hampered by thecurrent lack of photometric data. A list of additional halo stars whichmight be suitable for low metallicity observation is presented.
|Metal-Deficient Giants in the Galactic Field - Catalogue and Some Physical Parameters|
|Extremely metal-deficient red giants. I - A new objective-prism, photometric, and radial-velocity survey|
Results of an extensive objective-prism survey to detect extremelymetal-deficient red giants and a subsequent investigation of thephotometric and radial velocity properties of the newly discovered starsare presented. The 132 red giants with Fe/H abundance ratios less thanor equal to -1.5 discovered in the present objective-prism survey on a10-deg prism down to B magnitudes of 11.5, and by previousobjective-prism and other surveys, are listed, together with results ofradial velocity and photometric measurements. Examination of theStromgren m1 index calibrated against high-resolution spectroscopicdeterminations of the Fe-H abundance ratio indicates that population IIIfield giants with abundance ratios less than -3 are extremely rare. TheStromgren c1 index is used as an indicator of surface gravity andanomalous CH strengths, resulting in the identification of field redhorizontal-branch stars, field asymptotic-branch giants and subgiants.Radial velocities obtained for about half the stars reveal thatessentially all of them have halo motions, and that the incidence ofspectroscopic binaries is very low.
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